It might be helpful to build a glossary of golfing terms I use. I'll add to it as I go.
3-putt The par of a hole is calculated by how many shots it should take you to reach the green plus 2 putts on the green. To 3-putt is to ruin a good or already bad score by taking 3 shots on the green (4-putts, 5-putts, etc. are also possible with a bit of effort).
Birdie A score of one under par on a particular hole. A rare occurence for the likes of me.
Bounce game A game played just for fun rather for a handicap card or a competition.
Concentration A thing much easier said than achieved on a golf course, but possibly the most valuable skill, alongside relaxing, that you can acquire. Concentration and relaxation together are the only known cure for The Fear.
Driver The common name for the 1 wood, this is the longest club which is used to hit enormous soaring long shots (ideally) from the tee, and usually off a long tee peg. Modern drivers have a very large round head with a very shallow face.
Driving range A place where you go to get upset at how much better other people are than you and to hurt your wrist by clattering your club into the rubber tee mat. Driving range miseries are purchased in buckets of 50.
Chip and run A short shot usually played from just off the green and usually with a short iron or wedge. The ball is chipped up into the air then bounces and rolls towards (or into) the hole.
Duffers lead to duffers An addage learned from my friend Paul. When you hit a duff shot, if you allow yourself to get annoyed over it there's a good chance you'll hit a duffer next shot too. I doubt if a truer word was ever spoken.
Fairway Sort of like the motorway to from the tee to the green, the strip of short trimmed grass down the middle of a hole; the route you want to take when possible.
Fairway wood A type of wood with a low profile designed for hitting the ball off the fairway rather than off a tee peg. I have 5 and 3 fairway woods.
Fear, The The Fear is the game-wrecking anxiety and lack of focus induced by the myriad distractions experienced on a golf course, including rage over bad shots, the possibility of a good score, other people watching, and the fear of The Fear. Can only be cured through concentration and relaxation.
Follow through The part of a golf swing which takes place after the ball has been struck; consciously controlling the follow through seems to make for better shots and certainly helps to prevent injuries.
Handicap The Prisoner was more than just a number, but golfers are not. Your handicap is your stroke allowance when playing in competitions; if you have a 36 handicap (the highest possible) then 36 strokes will be deducted from the number of shots you take to give your actual score in a competition. Your handicap is recalculated every time you submit a score card. 36 is the highest possible handicap.
Hybrid (or rescue club) A modern development, this club is a hybrid between a short wood and long iron; used to 'rescue' balls from the rough as the angled iron-style face provides height while the hollow light wood-style head cuts more easily through rough grass. I have a 5 hybrid.
Iron A club with a heavier wedge shaped head. Different lengths and lofts of iron are used to control how far the ball travels. A 4 iron is longer with a less lofted face and hits further and lower than a 9 iron. Shorter irons are usually easier to hit.
Left arm straight A phrase often heard chanted repeatedly by golfers to learners. The left arm should be straight throughout a golf swing. Keeping it straight prevents you from swinging too far back and seems to give a much more controlled shot.
Loft The angle of the club face relative to vertical, or how high the ball flies in a shot. The higher the number of a club the more lofted its face and the higher and shorter the ball will fly.
Long iron One of the longer irons with a less lofted face, used to hit longer, lower balls which will bounce and run. Usually includes the 3 iron down to the 6 or 7 iron.
Medal A golf competition.
Pull A shot which goes in a straight line left of where you were aiming.
Push A shot which goes in a straight line right of where you were aiming.
Overswing You should only swing the club as far back as you can comfortably do while keeping your left arm straight. Going further is called overswinging and leads to shots that are less likely to fly straight or far.
Relax on the down swing I find it helps to try to control the back swing and then relax on the down swing, allowing the weight of the club to provide the power and the magic of my brain to do the aiming.
Relaxing The Holy Grail of golf; along with concentration, the most powerful skill a golfer can acquire. Concentration and relaxation together are the only known cure for The Fear.
Rescue club (or hybrid) A modern development, this club is a hybrid between a short wood and long iron; used to 'rescue' balls from the rough as the angled iron-style face provides height while the hollow light wood-style head cuts more easily through rough grass. I have a 5 hybrid.
Rotate the body I've read that the main movement in a golf swing should come from rotating the whole spine, from the hips to the neck, this movement taking the arms, shoulder and hands with it.
Short iron One of the shorter irons with a more lofted face, used to hit high shots over shorter distances which stop quickly; usually includes clubs from a sand wedge up to about an 8 or 7 iron.
Splash shot A particular type of shot used for hitting out of a bunker which I don't fully understand adn consequently can't do yet. It involves opening (angling outwards) the club face and the stance and then striking the sand before the ball to create a small explosion or splash which pops the ball up and out of the bunker (the same effect as launching a rubber duck out of the bath by slapping your hand in the water beside it).
Stand tall to hit the ball An addage I learned from my pal Harry, who learned it from an American pro. It means what it says: stand up straighter and avoid sticking out your rump or bending over the ball too much. When you watch the pros they certainly do stand tall to hit the ball.
Swing The action of bringing your club back, then forward to hit the ball and then following through. Most people have a particular style. Swings can be slow, fast, beautiful, crazy, strange, etc.
Weight How hard you hit the ball.
Wood A long club with a big round head and shallow face used to hit long low shots. Woods are harder to hit and you would normally only use them off the tee or from a very good lie. Modern woods are actually made from a light metal.